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学科主题: 物理化学
题名: Modern biomedical prospecting: sustainable exploitation of biodiversity (sponges and invertebrates)
作者: Mi L(米勒) ;  Zhang W(张卫) ;  Shu ET(舒尔特) ;  Shi LD(施罗德)
会议名称: The XIXth International Congress of Zoology
会议日期: 2004-8-23
出版日期: 2004-08-23
会议地点: 中国
其他题名: 现代生物医药前景:生物多样性的可持续开发海绵和无脊椎动物
通讯作者: 张卫
部门归属: 十八室
摘要: The oceans constitute the largest and possibly the most diversified ecosystem of the world. They are an indispensable source of various low-molecular and high-molecular natural products that offer new potentials for human therapy and biopolymer science. Soft-bodied marine invertebrates such as sponges, tunicates or gastropods are the richest source of bioactive compounds in the sea. Consequently, the majority of marine natural products originate from these animals. In addition to low-molecular compounds, high-molecular biomaterials from marine invertebrates have attracted increasing attention. These biomaterials include proteins (e.g. collagen), inorganic materials (e.g. biosilica) as well as enzymes/proteins that are involved in the formation/degradation of these polymers/skeletal elements. Collagens have been isolated and characterized from different marine sponges, including farmed sponge specimen. The 20 to 25 nm thick fibrils from the marine sponge Geodia cydonium display a 19.5 nm periodicity with one intraperiod band. The deduced aa sequence of the cDNA encoding the collagen from the demosponge Suberites domuncula, comprises three segments; (i) the non-collagenous N-terminal domain, (ii) the collagenous internal domain and (iii) the non-collagenous C-terminal domain. The collagenous internal domain in the S. domuncula molecule is unusually short (24 G-x-y collagen triplets). Sponge collagens have several advantages compared to collagen from other sources, including low toxicity and immunogenicity. In marine organisms, four major groups of biominerals exist; (i) ion compounds, (ii) calcium phosphates, (iii) calcium carbonates, and (iv) silica. The occurrence of silica is restricted to some Protozoa and to sponges (Porifera). The Demospongiae and Hexactinellida are the only two taxa within the kingdom of Metazoa, which use silica instead of calcium in their mineral skeleton. This is interesting in view of the fact that the concentration in the seawater is much higher for calcium ions. First insights have been gained into the mechanisms underlying the formation of the highly ordered silica structures, especially in marine sponges. The enzymes responsible for biosynthesis and degradation of biosilica have been isolated and characterized. The recombinant enzymes are of potential interest for a variety of medical and technical applications, e.g. surface modification of biomaterials or encapsulation of molecules (drug delivery). The knowledge how to manipulate biosynthesis of silica in the laboratory may also allow the production of tailor-made silicas for different applications in nanobiotechnology.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 会议论文
URI标识: http://cas-ir.dicp.ac.cn/handle/321008/111696
Appears in Collections:中国科学院大连化学物理研究所_会议论文

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Recommended Citation:
Mi L,Zhang W,Shu ET,et al. Modern biomedical prospecting: sustainable exploitation of biodiversity (sponges and invertebrates)[C]. 见:The XIXth International Congress of Zoology. 中国. 2004-8-23.
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